Is my website secure? You bet it is! I’m using HTTPS… Hang on, there’s more?

Most of the time we’re thinking about web security in terms of backend development, leaving the frontend with HTTPS and nothing more. Having a secured channel is a must have these days, but it shouldn’t be the only thing that we think off when it comes to securing our application on the users’ end.

Every security solution is like a slice of cheese- it may have some holes, leaving our application at risk. This is why we need to stack many layers till we don’t see any holes left.

With that in mind we need to consider HTTPS being only first layer of our security stack. I’d like to explain a little bit more about second most important (in my opinion) layer which is Content Security Policy.

What is CSP?

Content Security Policy is an HTTP response header that reduces the risk of XSS attack by whitelisting sources of images, scripts, styles and other resources. It is supported by top browsers, excluding IE (although there’s Edge support since build 10240+).

Currently there are two versions of CSP available, where version 1.0 has a better support coverage, but version 2.0 adds a number of new directives and capabilities thus should be considered as more robust solution.

CSP Examples

When you want to allow resource loading only from the same origin this is how CSP header looks like:

If you only want to restrict specific kind of resources for example scripts, you can do following:

Most of pages are using Google Analytics and Google Ajax CDN, this is all you need to enable those scripts:

You can see a list of all possible attributes here:

How to start

By enabling a Content-Security-Policy header in an existing application you’ll disable loading of all non-listed sources potentially breaking the page for a user. I recommend to start with Content-Security-Policy-Report-Only.

It works the same way as Content-Security-Policy, but instead of blocking the resource it throws an error in form of a JSON. You can handle it by yourself as they will be send via POST to a given URL, or use a service that will handle it for you (e.g.

You can record those errors and refine your policy, to the point where all needed sources are whitelisted and you don’t get any errors. It’s worth noting that Content-Security-Policy-Report-Only and Content-Security-Policy can coexists, so you can use one to block resources, and the other one to develop more strict policy versions for better security.

Server setup


Add the following to your httpd.conf in your VirtualHost or in an .htaccess file:


In your server {} block add:

Further reading

CTO @ Exlabs, AWS Certified Solutions Architect

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